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## B. Is Albedo Constant.

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Albedo varies significantly. The following Table illustrates variations in Earth’s albedo.

This table illustrates a variance in average albedo from a low of .230 to a high of .367 with a standard deviation of 0.044. In the Stephens et al study [Stephen G, et al, The albedo of Earth, Rev. Geophys. 53, 141-163] referenced in the above table, the albedo varied from a low of .29 to high of .50 with a standard deviation of 0.068.

Deviations in the albedo of 0.01 reduce the energy across the Earth’s surface by up to 2.9 watts/m2. [Xin Xu, (2015) MIT Research Brief Issue N12. *The Impact of Changes of Surface Albedo on Radiative Forcing*.] A deviation between the low and high values of .137 (0.367 -0.230) results in a change in radiation flux of 40 watts/m2 (.01 = 2.9 w/m2). If the standard deviation value of 0.044 is used, then this would translate into a change in the radiation flux 12.76 watts/m2.

The EPA graph below shows that carbon dioxide by itself had a total warming influence in 2015 of 2.3 watts/m2. The EPA graph indicates that the warming influence of the long lived greenhouse gases would generate a warming equal to 2.9 watts/m2. The measured albedo deviations between high to low values is 13.7 times higher than all man-made greenhouse gases. When using the standard deviation value, then the albedo variations would be slightly more than 4 times greater than the warming influence of the greenhouse gases shown in the Figure below. It is recognized that water vapor is not included in the graph or in the analysis by the IPCC even though it is the most abundant greenhouse type gas. This is because the IPCC considers water vapor as a feedback component of CO_{2}, i.e. CO_{2} controls temperature which controls the saturated water vapor content.

High-Low Differences = 31.5 W/m2. CO_{2} Greenhouse Gas Only = 2.3 W/m2

High-Low Differences = 40 W/m2. Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases = 2.9 W/m2

Standard Deviation = 10.1 W/m2 CO_{2} Greenhouse Gases = 2.3 W/m2

Standard Deviation = 12.76 W/m2 Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases = 2.9 W/m2

This negates using warming temperatures above the black body temperature as proof of the Greenhouse Effect. It is also repudiates the Greenhouse Effect because it shows that the warming temperatures are most likely based on the variations in the Earth’s albedo. For example, if the “warming influence” of the greenhouse gases only causes a change in the heating of 2.9 watts/m2 but the standard deviation in the Earth’s albedo is 12.76 watts/m2, then deviations in the albedo controls the “warming influence” far more (4 times) than a Greenhouse Effect. .